All about dark energy and the mystery of the Universe

by

Anders Björkman

(February 2020)

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DESI is the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument that will measure the effect of dark energy on the expansion of the Universe. Astrophysical observations stretching back at least 50 years, including recent studies of the behavior of stars and galaxies, have clearly established that about three-quarters of the mass and energy of the entire universe is dark energy, and one-fifth is dark matter, leaving only about 5 percent for normal baryonic matter. Dark matter is invisible to observations across the optical spectrum, and is observed primarily by its gravitational effects. Without the binding effects of dark matter, the galaxies would not have formed, the stars would not shine, and life would not exist, we are told.

Nobody really knows what dark energy is, except that it is ~72% of the Universe or, if the Universe really expands, but who cares? Invisible dark energy must have some effects on the Universe!

DESI will obtain optical spectra for tens of millions of galaxies and quasars, constructing a 3D map spanning the nearby Universe to 11 billion light years, we are told. The people behind DESI think that the Universe was created out of a singularity (nothing) >13 billion light years ago in a Big Bang. I have my doubts! I think the Universe has always existed. But it is a very good idea to study the two possibilities from Earth.

The DESI Survey is conducted on the Mayall 4-meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory since 2019. DESI is supported by the US Department of Energy Office of Science to perform this Stage IV dark energy measurement using baryon acoustic oscillations and other techniques that rely on spectroscopic measurements. The survey will be finished around 2025.

The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument is thus a scientific research instrument for conducting spectrographic astronomical surveys of distant galaxies and quasars.

We all agree that a galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust and unknown dark matter. The word galaxy is derived from the Greek galaxias, literally milky, a reference to the Milky Way galaxy, where our Solar system with the Sun in the middle is one of millions of other solar systems.

A quasar is, we are told, another word for an extremely luminous active galactic nucleus, in which a supermassive black hole with mass ranging from millions to billions of times the mass of our Sun is surrounded by a gaseous accretion disk. As gas in the disk falls towards the black hole, visible energy is released in the form of electromagnetic radiation, which can be observed across the electromagnetic spectrum. The black hole itself is evidently not visible, even if a photo of it is available since some time. I think a black hole is fantasy pseudo-science garbage invented by a clown - Stephen Hawking.

According Nathalie PALANQUE-DELABROUILLE there are 35 million galaxies like our Milky Way galaxy in the Universe but only 2.4 million quasars (and black holes) one of which is at the centre of our Milky Way galaxy.

She is the spokeswoman for DESI and its >600 participants since 2018.

The DESI main components are a focal plane containing 5,000 fiber-positioning robots, and a bank of spectrographs which are fed by the fibers. The DESI instrument will enable the experiment to probe the expansion history of the Universe and the mysterious physics of dark energy.

Dark energy is maybe something - a repulsive force? - keeping all these galaxies, quasars and black holes moving or in place in the Universe. We don't know! At present Dark Energy is only a hypothetical form of energy that exerts a negative, repulsive pressure, behaving like the opposite of gravity. What kind of unstable subatomic particles doing it are?? It has been hypothesised, on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation, that these particles account for the observational properties of distant type Ia supernovae, which show the Universe going through an accelerated period of expansion. Like Dark Matter, Dark Energy is not directly observed, i.e. invisible, but rather inferred from observations of gravitational interactions between astronomical objects, e.g. galaxies and quasars.

The DESI instrument is operated by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and is funded by numerous sources via tax payers, including the US Department of Energy's Office of Science, the US National Science Foundation, the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council, France's Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission, Mexico's National Council of Science and Technology and Spain's Ministry of Science and Innovation.

DESI sits at an elevation of 6,880 feet (2,100 m), where it has been retrofitted onto the Mayall Telescope on top of Kitt Peak in the Sonoran Desert, which is located 55 miles (89 km) from Tucson, Arizona, US. Of course it can only survey the Universe visible from Tucson.

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has nothing to do with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and its prime mission to improve the United States' security, we are told, by developing and applying world-class propaganda, pseudo-science, fake technology and fantasy engineering that enhance the U.S.'s defence, reduces the global threat from terrorism and weapons of mass destruction and responds with vision, quality, integrity and technical excellence to scientific issues of national importance, bla, bla. Most past and present scientists employed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are simply paid Hollywood actors incl. the one that invented the thermonuclear bomb in the 1950's. The whole Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a joke! I have a feeling DESI is also a joke! We will see.